Gambia & Lapa, 12 de julho de 2017

HerbLubalinEros

“Black & White in color”, Herb Lubalin. Rev.Eros, 1962

 

E aí, meu velho?

Será que na estante onde você vive, existe um exemplar de “Raízes”? Como é um livro de 1976, não deve ser fácil ter um ao lado.

Eu era adolescente quando li este livro do escritor americano Alex Haley. Ele conta a trajetória de sua família nascida na África e escravizada em solo estadunidense, como milhares de outros africanos sequestrados pelos brancos. Esta leitura provocou em mim sentimentos que, felizmente ou infelizmente, se mantêm até hoje.

Felizmente, porque a indignação que tive ao ler o livro 41 anos atrás permanece. Infelizmente, porque 41 anos depois, vejo a escravidão permanecer ativa e disfarçada de outros grilhões.

Diante da imensa pesquisa feita para resgatar a trajetória de sua família da África até a América, o livro levou 20 anos para ser escrito, segundo li em sites. Na época, foi um soco no estômago. No meu e de tantos outros que, certamente, só conheciam a abordagem do assunto pelos livros escolares, aqui ou nos Estados Unidos. Sem a dimensão visceral da tragédia da escravidão, olhávamos como uma “parte natural da história” dos homens. Dos brancos como nós. Sabe-se hoje que negros africanos escravizavam negros de outras tribos; o domínio do mais forte sobre o mais fraco. Não é um privilégio de brancos sobre negros. Mas a escravidão ocidental foi, certamente, a mais conhecida e de maior influência sobre uma raça, pois tem reflexos até hoje.

Duas lembranças me impactaram profundamente sobre “Raízes”. Uma no livro e, outra, numa entrevista do autor em um jornal (sim, já adolescente eu lia jornal).

A do livro é a passagem em que Kunta Kinte, o trisavô do autor, é capturado por traficantes de escravos ao sair para caminhar fora dos limites da sua aldeia. Deitado em um sofá na nossa casa no subúrbio do Rio, o adolescente aqui imaginou-se arrancado de sua vida como foi Kunta Kinte. Desaparecendo naquela tarde, indo para longe de meus pais, meu irmão, meu cachorro. A empatia com o jovem africano veio da agonia de experimentar a mesma sensação de ver meus pais chegando em casa sem saber que nunca mais me veriam, e nem eu a eles.

Foi a realidade mais próxima que pude criar daquela passagem: minha vida ter um dono que não era eu. E veja, meu velho, sem a trajetória de violência, humilhação e mutilação impostas as gerações dessa família afro-americana. Era um menino branco se imaginando sem suas raízes e a rede de proteção que vivia. Naquela época, o mais próximo disso, seriam as ações violentas da ditadura militar, invadindo casas e desaparecendo com vidas. E há quem defenda a volta disso. Até baterem à sua porta.

A outra situação foi a da entrevista com o autor. A série original de 1976 para a TV estreara nos EUA.  Ao pegar um táxi dias depois, Alex revelou que foi reconhecido pelo motorista. Este confessou que, após ver a série, ficou envergonhado diante do que fizeram com milhões de africanos escravizados. Ele pediu desculpas ao autor por tudo que os americanos brancos fizeram à sua e às outras famílias africanas.

“Raízes” foi um livro contundente. Era a voz de uma etnia transformada em best-seller pelo mercado branco americano. A série conquistou diversos prêmios e seu capítulo final é, até hoje, uma das maiores audiências da TV dos EUA.

Vale lembrar, também, a provocação do subtítulo: “A saga de uma família americana”. Naquela época, não se falava em afrodescendente ou afro-americano. Sua família foi feita americana pela força. Então, por direito, ela era negra e americana tanto quanto uma branca e americana. Aceite, Trump.

Lembrei desse livro de 40 anos atrás, meu velho, por causa de dois acontecimentos semana passada.

Um deles, foi a notícia de que imigrantes africanos estão sendo escravizados por mercenários e vendidos na Líbia, como nos tempos do tráfico para as Américas.

A outra situação foi uma gravação feita do celular do jovem músico carioca, Nego Álvaro, postada no Facebook. Depois de se apresentar num bar da Lapa carioca, ele foi abordado e conduzido para a delegacia como “suspeito”, sem que o policial explicasse de que flagrante ele era acusado. Essa semana, ela lançou um disco e uma das músicas, de autoria de Moacyr Luz, coloca com bom humor, essa face da discriminação, quando canta: “Estranhou o quê? Preto pode ter o mesmo que você”.

Como disse o historiador William Pretzer, americano branco e diretor do Museu Nacional e Cultura Afro-Americana, pessoas bem informadas, ao visitarem o museu, falam: “Por que eu nunca soube disso?” ou “Por que isso não estava nos meus livros?”.

Ainda existem muitas raízes que precisam ser expostas, meu velho. Caminhamos; mas não chegamos lá ainda.

Até a próxima página. Um grande abraço e nos lemos em breve.

L.

PS.: Mais uma vez, devemos a vocês, livros, a chance de ouvir vozes de outras etnias; às vezes escrava, às vezes livre, mas necessárias. São muitos os livros vindos de autores negros de vários continentes. Não dá para falar de todos, mas eu destacaria “Entre o mundo e eu”, de Ta-Nehisi Coates, editora Objetiva e “A autobiografia do poeta-escravo”, de Joan Francisco Manzano, da Hedra. Também, “Um grão de trigo”, de Ngusi Wa Thiongo, da Alfaguara, um clássico da literatura do Quênia. “Um defeito de cor”, de Ana Maria Gonçalves, da Record; a versão feminina de uma família africana também em busca de suas raízes. E o que leio agora, ganhador do Pulitzer, “The Underground Railroad  ̶  Os caminhos da liberdade”, de Colson Whitehead. E a Flip vem aí, com ótimos autores convidados, fazendo jus ao grande Lima Barreto, filho de mãe escrava e pai português. Há muita história ainda para ser contada, meu velho.

Este é o vídeo do Nego Álvaro. Adianto que ele foi solto na mesma noite.

https://www.facebook.com/alvaro.carnei/videos/10203594470457925/

E continua tocando e cantando para nossa alegria.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TK9hZVbeBFk

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